Node.js is an event-driven I/O server-side JavaScript environment based on V8. It is intended for writing scalable network programs such as web servers. It was created by Ryan Dahl in 2009, and its growth is sponsored by Joyent, which employs Dahl. Similar environments written in other programming languages include Twisted for Python, Perl Object Environment for Perl, libevent for C and EventMachine for Ruby. Unlike most JavaScript, it is not executed in a web browser, but is instead a form of server-side JavaScript. Node.js implements some CommonJS specifications. Node.js includes a REPL environment for interactive testing.
JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a Java technology that helps software developers serve dynamically generated web pages based on HTML, XML, or other document types. Released in 1999 as Sun's answer to ASP and PHP,[citation needed] JSP was designed to address the perception that the Java programming environment didn't provide developers with enough support for the Web. To deploy and run, a compatible web server with servlet container is required. The Java Servlet and the JavaServer Pages (JSP) specifications from Sun Microsystems and the JCP (Java Community Process) must both be met by the container.
ASP.NET is a web application framework developed and marketed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), allowing programmers to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET language. The ASP.NET SOAP extension framework allows ASP.NET components to process SOAP messages.
Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language[5] whose design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Python claims to "[combine] remarkable power with very clear syntax",[7] and its standard library is large and comprehensive. Its use of indentation for block delimiters is unique among popular programming languages. Python supports multiple programming paradigms, primarily but not limited to object-oriented, imperative and, to a lesser extent, functional programming styles. It features a fully dynamic type system and automatic memory management, similar to that of Scheme, Ruby, Perl, and Tcl. Like other dynamic languages, Python is often used as a scripting language, but is also used in a wide range of non-scripting contexts. Using third-party tools, Python code can be packaged into standalone executable programs. Python interpreters are available for many operating systems.
Perl is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a general-purpose Unix scripting language to make report processing easier. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions and become widely popular amongst programmers. Larry Wall continues to oversee development of the core language, and its upcoming version, Perl 6. Perl borrows features from other programming languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, and sed.[5] The language provides powerful text processing facilities without the arbitrary data length limits of many contemporary Unix tools, facilitating easy manipulation of text files. Perl gained widespread popularity in the late 1990s as a CGI scripting language, in part due to its parsing abilities.
Ruby on Rails was extracted by David Heinemeier Hansson from his work on Basecamp, a project management tool by 37signals (now a web application company). Hansson first released Ruby on Rails as open source in July 2004, but did not share commit rights to the project until February 2005. In August 2006 the framework reached a milestone when Apple announced that it would ship Ruby on Rails with Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard", which was released in October 2007. Ruby on Rails version 2.3 was released on March 15, 2009. Major new developments in Ruby on Rails include templates, engines, Rack and nested model forms.
Following the release of Miranda by Research Software Ltd, in 1985, interest in lazy functional languages grew: by 1987, more than a dozen non-strict, purely functional programming languages existed. Of these, Miranda was the most widely used, but was not in the public domain. At the conference on Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture (FPCA '87) in Portland, Oregon, a meeting was held during which participants formed a strong consensus that a committee should be formed to define an open standard for such languages. The committee's purpose was to consolidate the existing functional languages into a common one that would serve as a basis for future research in functional-language design.
The design of Scala started in 2001 at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) by Martin Odersky, following on from work on Funnel, a programming language combining ideas from functional programming and Petri nets.[not in citation given] Odersky had previously worked on Generic Java and javac, Sun's Java compiler. Scala was released late 2003 / early 2004 on the Java platform, and on the .NET platform in June 2004. A second version of the language, v2.0, was released in March 2006. On 17 January 2011 Scala team won a 5 year research grant of over €2.3 million from European Research Council. On 12 May 2011, Odersky and collaborators launched Typesafe, a company to provide commercial support, training, and services for Scala. Typesafe received $3 million investment from Greylock Partners.
Rich Hickey is the creator of the Clojure programming language. Before Clojure, he developed dotLisp, a similar project based on the .NET platform. Hickey is an independent software developer and a consultant with over 20 years of experience in many facets of software development. He has worked on scheduling systems, broadcast automation, audio analysis and fingerprinting, database design, yield management, exit poll systems, and machine listening. He spent about 2½ years working on Clojure before releasing it to the world, much of that time working exclusively on Clojure without external funding. When he finally announced it, the announcement consisted of one email to some friends in the Common Lisp community.
Objective-C was created primarily by Brad Cox and Tom Love in the early 1980s at their company Stepstone. Both had been introduced to Smalltalk while at ITT Corporation's Programming Technology Center in 1981. The earliest work on Objective C traces back to around that time. Cox was intrigued by problems of true reusability in software design and programming. He realized that a language like Smalltalk would be invaluable in building development environments for system developers at ITT. However, he and Tom Love also recognized that backward compatibility with C was critically important in ITT's telecom engineering milieu. Cox began writing a pre-processor for C to add some of the capabilities of Smalltalk. He soon had a working implementation of an object-oriented extension to the C language, which he called "OOPC" for Object-Oriented Pre-Compiler.
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